Oxytocin is a nonapeptide (nine amino acids) hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary.  Oxytocin produces action both peripherally and in the brain.  It is released in large amounts in females during childbirth, nipple stimulation, and breast feeding.  Oxytocin is released by males and females during orgasm and is considered by many to be the hormone of desire, social recognition and bonding.  Volumes of recent studies have shown that oxytocin plays a key role in maintaining other aspects of overall health.  Research confirms that adequate oxytocin is critical for normal cellular function in other organ systems.  
Belmar Pharmacy compounds oxytocin in an oral tablet, a sublingual tablet, or a cream.   Injectable oxytocin is available commercially.


Scheele, D., Wille, A., Kendrick, K., Stoffel-Wagner, B., Becker, B., Gunturkun, O., Maier, W. and Hurlemann, R. (2013). Oxytocin enhances brain reward system responses in men viewing the face of their female partner. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(50), pp.  20308-20313.
Magon, Navneet, and Sanjay Kalra. (2011). The orgasmic history of oxytocin: Love, lust, and labor. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 15(7), pp. 156.
Burri, A., Heinrichs, M., Schedlowski, M., and Tillmann, TH. Kruger. (2008). The Acute effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on endocrine and sexual function in males. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 33(5),591-600.
Kiss, A., Mikkelsen, JD. (2005). Oxytocin--anatomy and functional assignments: a minireview. Endocr Regul, 39(3), pp.97-105.
Liedtke, R. (2004). Oxytocin. [online] Oxytocin.org. Available at: http://www.oxytocin.org/refs/ [Accessed 5 Jan. 2016].
Gimpl, G. and Fahrenholz, F. (2001). The oxytocin receptor system: structure, function, and regulation. Physiol Rev, 81(2), pp.629-83.
Fisher, H. (1998). Lust, attraction, and attachment in mammalian reproduction. Hum Nat, 9(1), pp.23-52.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Frijling, J., van Zuiden, M., Koch, S., Nawijn, L., Goslings, J., Luitse, J., Biesheuvel, T., Honig, A., Bakker,F., Denys, D., Veltman, D. and Olff, M. (2014). Efficacy of oxytocin administration early after psychotrauma in preventing the development of PTSD: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry, 14(1), p.92.
Olff, M., Koch, S., Nawijn, L., Frijling, J., Zuiden, M., & Veltman, D. (2014). Social support, oxytocin, and PTSD.  European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5(10).
Koch, S., van Zuiden, M., Nawijn, L., Frijling, J., Veltman, D. and Olff, M. (2014). Intranasal oxytocin as strategy for medication-enhanced psychotherapy of PTSD: Salience processing and fear inhibition processes. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 40, pp.242-256.
Psychological Disorders
Herpertz, S. and Bertsch, K. (2015). A New Perspective on the Pathophysiology of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Model of the Role of Oxytocin. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(9), pp.840-851. 
 Murgatroyd, C., Peña, C., Podda, G., Nestler, E. and Nephew, B. (2015). Early life social stress induced changes in depression and anxiety associated neural pathways which are correlated with impaired maternal care. Neuropeptides, 52, pp.103-111.

McQuaid, R., McInnis, O., Abizaid, A. and Anisman, H. (2014). Making room for oxytocin in understanding depression. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 45, pp.305-322.
Bertsch, K., Gamer, M., Schmidt, B., Schmidinger, I., Walther, S., Kästel, T., Schnell, K., Büchel, C., Domes, G. and Herpertz, S. (2013). Oxytocin and Reduction of Social Threat Hypersensitivity in Women With Borderline Personality Disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(10), pp.1169-1177.

Domes, G., Heinrichs, M., Gläscher, J., Büchel, C., Braus, D. and Herpertz, S. (2007). Oxytocin Attenuates Amygdala Responses to Emotional Faces Regardless of Valence. Biological Psychiatry, 62(10), pp.1187- 1190.
Weight Loss
Altirriba, J., Pataky, Z., Golay, A. and Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F. (2015). Oxytocin: metabolic effects and potential use for obesity treatment. Rev Med Suisse, 14(11), pp.97-100.
Cai, D. and Purkayastha, S. (2013). A new horizon: oxytocin as a novel therapeutic option for obesity and diabetes. Drug Discovery Today: Disease Mechanisms, 10(1-2), pp.e63-e68. 
Blevins, J. and Ho, J. (2013). Role of oxytocin signaling in the regulation of body weight. Rev Endocr Metab Disord, 14(4), pp.311-329.
Auyeung, B., Lombardo, M., Heinrichs, M., Chakrabarti, B., Sule, A., Deakin, J., Bethlehem, R., Dickens, L., Mooney, N., Sipple, J., Thiemann, P. and Baron-Cohen, S. (2015).Oxytocin increases eye contact during a real-time, naturalistic social interaction in males with and without autism. Translational Psychiatry, 5(2), p.e507. 
Li, H., Shan, L., Du, L. and Jay, F. (2015). Research advances in the management of autism spectrum disorders in children. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi, 17(8), pp.886-92.
Hollander, E., Bartz, J., Chaplin, W., Phillips, A., Sumner, J., Soorya, L., Anagnostou, E. and Wasserman, S. (2007). Oxytocin Increases Retention of Social Cognition in AutismBiological Psychiatry, 61(4), pp.498-503.
 Lin, S., Lee, L., Tsai, H., Chen, K., Chen, W., Lee, I., Lu, R., Chen, P. and Yang, Y. (2015). Association between Blood Level of Plasma Oxytocin and Novelty Seeking among Methadone-Maintained Heroin Users. Neuropsychobiology, 71(2), pp.65-69. 
Zhou, L., Sun, W., Young, A., Lee, K., McGinty, J. and See, R. (2014). Oxytocin Reduces Cocaine Seeking and Reverses Chronic Cocaine-Induced Changes in Glutamate Receptor Function. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 18(1), pp. 09.
Rehme, M., Hillemacher, T. and Heberlein, A. (2013). Comment on "Intranasal Oxytocin Blocks Alcohol Withdrawal in Human Subjects” by Pedersen and Colleagues (). Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 37(5), pp.720-721.
Taylor, A., Lee, H. and Buisman-Pijlman, F. (2014). Oxytocin treatment in pediatric populations.  Frontiers in Behavioral. Neuroscience., 8. (360).
 Tracy, L., Georgiou-Karistianis, N., Gibson, S. and Giummarra, M. (2015). Oxytocin and the modulation of pain experience: Implications for chronic pain management. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 55, pp.53-67.
Rash, J., Aguirre-Camacho, A. and Campbell, T. (2013). Oxytocin and PainThe Clinical Journal of Pain, 30, pp. 453-462.

Vaginal Atrophy 
Jonasson, A., Edwall, L. and Uvnas-Moberg, K. (2011). Topical oxytocin reverses vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: a double-blind randomized pilot study. Menopause International, 17(4), pp.120-125.


Belmar Pharmacy  800.525.9473  I  303.763.5533  I  231 Violet Street, Suite 140  I  Golden, CO 80401