Oxytocin is a nonapeptide (nine amino acids) hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary.  Oxytocin produces action both peripherally and in the brain.  It is released in large amounts in females during childbirth, nipple stimulation, and breast feeding.  Oxytocin is released by males and females during orgasm and is considered by many to be the hormone of desire, social recognition and bonding.  Volumes of recent studies have shown that oxytocin plays a key role in maintaining other aspects of overall health.  Research confirms that adequate oxytocin is critical for normal cellular function in other organ systems.  
Belmar Pharmacy compounds oxytocin in an oral tablet, a sublingual tablet, or a cream.   Injectable oxytocin is available commercially.


Sexual Function and Relationships
Kreuder AK, Wassermann L, Wollseifer M, et al. Oxytocin enhances the pain-relieving effects of social support in romantic couplesHum Brain Mapp, 2019; 40(1):242-251.         
Scheele D, Wille A, Kendrick K, et al. Oxytocin enhances brain reward system responses in men viewing the face of their female partner. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2013; 110(50):20308-20313.
Schneiderman I, Zagoory-Sharon O, Leckman JF, Feldman R.  Oxytocin during the initial stages of romantic attachment: relations to couples' interactive reciprocity.  Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2012; 37(8):1277-85
Magon N, Sanjay K. The orgasmic history of oxytocin: Love, lust, and labor. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2011; 15(7):156.
Burri A, Heinrichs M, Schedlowski M, Kruger TH. The Acute effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on endocrine and sexual function in males. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2008; 33(5):591-600.
Kiss A, Mikkelsen JD. Oxytocin--anatomy and functional assignments: a minireview. Endocr Regul, 2005; 39(3):97-105.
Gimpl G, Fahrenholz F. The oxytocin receptor system: structure, function, and regulation. Physiol Rev, 2001; 81(2):629-83.
Liedtke R. Hormone involved in reproduction may have role in the maintenance of relationships. BLTC Research. website.  https://www.oxytocin.org/oxytoc/index.html. July 14, 1999. Accessed Janurary 24, 2019.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Flanagan JC, Hand A, Jarnecke AM, et al.  Effects of oxytocin on working memory and executive control system connectivity in posttraumatic stress disorder. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol, 2018; 26(4):391-402.
Olff M, Koch S, Nawijn L, et al. Social support, oxytocin, and PTSD.  European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 2014; 5:26513.
Mood Disorders
De Cagna F, Fusar-Poli L, Damiani S, et al. The Role of Intranasal Oxytocin in Anxiety and Depressive Disorders: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled TrialsClin Psychopharmacol Neurosci, 2019; 17(1):1-11.
Bertsch K, Herpertz SC.  Oxytocin and Borderline Personality DisorderCurr Top Behav Neurosci, 2018; 35:499-514.           
Bosch OJ, Young LJ.  Oxytocin and Social Relationships: From Attachment to Bond DisruptionCurr Top Behav Neurosci, 2018; 35:97-117. 
Grace SA, Rossell SL, Heinrichs M, Kordsachia C, Labuschagne I.Oxytocin and brain activity in humans: A systematic review and coordinate-based meta-analysis of functional MRI studiesPsychoneuroendocrinology, 2018; 96:6-24. 
Kendrick KM, Guastella AJ, Becker B.  Overview of Human Oxytocin ResearchCurr Top Behav Neurosci, 2018; 35:321-348. 
Jones C, Barrera I, Brothers S, Ring R, Wahlestedt C.  Oxytocin and social functioningDialogues Clin Neurosci, 2017; 19(2):193-201.           
Sippel LM, Allington CE, Pietrzak RH, et al. Oxytocin and Stress-related Disorders: Neurobiological Mechanisms and Treatment OpportunitiesChronic Stress (Thousand Oaks), 2017;1. 
Feeser M, Fan Y, Weigand A, et al. Oxytocin improves mentalizing - pronounced effects for individuals with attenuated ability to empathizePsychoneuroendocrinology, 2015; 53:223-32.

Herpertz S, Bertsch K. A New Perspective on the Pathophysiology of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Model of the Role of Oxytocin. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2015; 172(9), pp.840-851. 

McQuaid R, McInnis O, Abizaid A, Anisman H. Making room for oxytocin in understanding depression. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 2014; 45, pp.305-322.
Bertsch K, Gamer M, Schmidt B, et al. Oxytocin and Reduction of Social Threat Hypersensitivity in Women With Borderline Personality Disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2013; 170(10):1169-1177.

Domes G, Heinrichs M, Gläscher J, et al. Oxytocin Attenuates Amygdala Responses to Emotional Faces Regardless of Valence. Biological Psychiatry, 2007; 62(10):1187- 1190.
Weight Loss and Obesity
Ding C, Leow MK, Magkos F.  Oxytocin in metabolic homeostasis: implications for obesity and diabetes managementObes Rev, 2019; 20(1):22-40. 
Spetter MS, Hallschmid M.  Current findings on the role of oxytocin in the regulation of food intakePhysiol Behav, 2017; 176:31-39. 
Olszewski PK, Klockars A, Levine AS.  Oxytocin and potential benefits for obesity treatment Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes, 2017; 24(5):320-325.           
Lawson EA.  The effects of oxytocin on eating behaviour and metabolism in humansNat Rev Endocrinol, 2017; 13(12):700-709.
Altirriba J, Pataky Z, Golay A, Rohner-Jeanrenaud F. Oxytocin: metabolic effects and potential use for obesity treatment. Rev Med Suisse, 2015; 14(11):97-100.
Cai D, and Purkayastha S.  A new horizon: oxytocin as a novel therapeutic option for obesity and diabetes. Drug Discovery Today: Disease Mechanisms, 2013; 10(1-2):e63-e68. 
Blevins J, Ho J.  Role of oxytocin signaling in the regulation of body weight. Rev Endocr Metab Disord, 2013; 14(4):311-329.
Auyeung B, Lombardo M, Heinrichs M, et al. Oxytocin increases eye contact during a real-time, naturalistic social interaction in males with and without autism. Translational Psychiatry, 2015; 5(2):507. 
Li H, Shan L, Du L, Jay F.  Research advances in the management of autism spectrum disorders in children. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi, 2015; 17(8):886-92.
Hollander E, Bartz J, Chaplin W, et al. Oxytocin Increases Retention of Social Cognition in AutismBiological Psychiatry, 2007; 61(4):498-503.
Nielsen S, Gowing L, Sabioni P, Le Foll B.  Pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependenceCochrane Database Syst Rev, 2019; 1:CD008940.

Zhou L, Sun W, Young A, et al.  Oxytocin Reduces Cocaine Seeking and Reverses Chronic Cocaine-Induced Changes in Glutamate Receptor Function.  International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 2014; 18(1):1093.
Rehme M, Hillemacher T, Heberlein A. Comment on "Intranasal Oxytocin Blocks Alcohol Withdrawal in Human Subjects” by Pedersen and ColleaguesAlcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 2013; 37(5):720-721.
McGregor I, Bowen M.  Breaking the loop: Oxytocin as a potential treatment for drug addiction. Hormones and Behavior, 2012; 61(3):331-339.
Taylor A, Lee H, Buisman-Pijlman F. Oxytocin treatment in pediatric populations.  Frontiers in Behavioral. Neuroscience, 2014; 8:360.
Kreuder AK, Wassermann L, Wollseifer M, et al. Oxytocin enhances the pain-relieving effects of social support in romantic couples.  Hum Brain Mapp, 2019; 40(1):242-251.   
 Tracy L, Georgiou-Karistianis N, Gibson S, Giummarra M. Oxytocin and the modulation of pain experience: Implications for chronic pain management. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 2015; 55:53-67.
Rash J, Aguirre-Camacho A, Campbell T. Oxytocin and PainThe Clinical Journal of Pain, 2013; 30:453-462.

Vaginal Atrophy 
Kallak TK, Uvnäs-Moberg K.  Oxytocin stimulates cell proliferation in vaginal cell line Vk2E6E7Post Reprod Health, 2017; 23(1):6-12. 
Al-Saqi SH, Jonasson AF, Naessén T, Uvnäs-Moberg K.  Oxytocin improves cytological and histological profiles of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal womenPost Reprod Health, 2016; 22(1):25-33. 
Al-Saqi SH, Uvnäs-Moberg K, Jonasson AF.  Intravaginally applied oxytocin improves post-menopausal vaginal atrophy.  Post Reprod Health, 2015; 21(3):88-97.   

Jonasson A, Edwall L, Uvnas-Moberg K. Topical oxytocin reverses vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: a double-blind randomized pilot study. Menopause International, 2011; 17(4):120-125.


Belmar Pharmacy  800.525.9473  I  303.763.5533  I  231 Violet Street, Suite 140  I  Golden, CO 80401